10 of the Most Endangered Species on Earth

10 of the Most Endangered Species on Earth

In 2006, the United States Congress designated the third Friday of May as Endangered Species Day.

The day highlights the importance of protecting the most endangered animals on our planet.

The World Wildlife Fund tracks the most critically endangered species today.

These are ten magnificent animals who are designated as critically endangered.

10 of the Most Endangered Species on Earth
Amur Leopard
1. Amur Leopard

Unlike its southern cousins, the Amur leopard has adapted to live in the cold, temperate forests of southeast Russia and northeast China. Its winter fur is the longest of any leopards, with each hair growing to 3 inches (7 centimeters) long. It’s estimated there are only about 60 of these unique cats left.

With such a low population, a distinct threat to their survival is inbreeding. Researchers have found hazardously low genetic diversity in the existing leopards. Also, cub survival rates have been decreasing for decades, which is likely due to genetic abnormalities.

Bornean Orangutan
Bornean Orangutan
2. Bornean Orangutan

This orangutan is native to the island of Borneo in the South Pacific. It’s the largest tree-dwelling animal on earth. Social groups build nests from bent tree branches to sleep on each night. Bornean orangutans are also the slowest breeding of all mammals. Scientists are concerned that their low reproduction rates may cause these orangutans to be the first of the great apes to become extinct.

800px Cross River Gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli
Image credit: By Julie Langford, via Wikimedia Commons
 3. Cross River Gorilla

The Cross River gorilla is the world’s rarest great ape, with only 200 to 300 individuals alive today. It only lives in the forested hills and mountains at the headwaters of the Cross River on the Cameroon-Nigeria border.

Humans have displaced the primate in large areas of their traditional range. Interestingly, a 2007 study found that the gorillas may be fighting back. They’ve been seen throwing grass, soil and branches at humans who approach them. This is unique behavior among the great apes.

Hawksbill sea turtle
hawksbill sea turtle dive down into the deep blue ocean against the sunlight
4. Hawksbill Turtle

Hawksbills inhabit the world’s tropical oceans. They can weigh up to 150 pounds (68 kilograms) and live 30 to 50 years. It is the only reptile known to eat primarily sea sponges, spending most of its time around coral reefs. Hawksbill eggs are still eaten around the world, and they are often killed for meat and their colorful shells.

Javan Rhino
Javan Rhino – Image credit: By Shankar70, via Wikimedia Commons
5. Javan Rhino

This is the most endangered rhinoceros in the world, with only 63 animals surviving in a national park in Indonesia. They are also potentially the rarest large mammals on earth.

Very little is known about the Javan rhino’s way of life. They live in extremely dense jungle, making them difficult to study. Adults live alone and only come together occasionally to mate. Their days are typically spent wallowing in mud holes, which they might deepen with their feet and horns for extra comfort.

Malayan Tiger
Malayan Tiger
6. Malayan Tiger

These tigers only live on the Malay Peninsula and the southern tip of Thailand. They can prey on livestock, which may be one reason behind their decline. Humans kill the tigers to protect their livestock. Tigers are also poached for their meat and a medicine made from tiger bones.

The Malaysian Conservation Alliance for Tigers (MYCAT) started a hotline to report tiger poaching. They also organize “Cat Walks”, a citizen patrol in highly threatened areas to deter poaching.

Mountain Gorilla
Mountain Gorilla
7. Mountain Gorilla

Dian Fossey’s research work with the mountain gorillas of Rwanda brought them international attention. Despite increased conservation efforts, only two populations of gorillas remain today in four national parks in Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Mountain gorillas live in high mountain regions, at elevations of 8,000 to 13,000 feet (2,400 to 4000 meters). Their long fur allows them to tolerate sometimes freezing temperatures. Adults can weigh up to 440 pounds (200 kilograms), and stand over five feet tall when they’re up on two legs.

8. Saola

The saola, also known as the Asian unicorn, was first discovered by scientists in May 1992. They have only been found in the Annamite Mountains of Vietnam and Laos.

The nickname unicorn relates to their two sharp horns, which can reach up to 20 inches (51 centimeters). Saola means “spindle horns” in Vietnamese. They are cousins of cattle, goats and antelope.

Sumatran Elephant
Sumatran Elephant
9. Sumatran Elephant

Sumatran elephants play a vital role in their local ecosystem. They eat a wide variety of plants and deposit seeds throughout their range.

Unfortunately, pulp and paper industries as well as palm plantations have deforested vast areas in Sumatra. Nearly 70 percent of the elephant’s natural habitat has been destroyed in one generation.

Elephant populations have dropped by 80 percent in less than 25 years. To help turn this trend around, the World Wildlife Fund has partnered with local groups to counteract poaching and create protected areas for the elephants.

800px Vaquita6 Olson NOAA
Image credit: By Paula Olson, via Wikimedia Commons
10. Vaquita

The vaquita is the world’s rarest marine mammal. It is on the edge of extinction with only 30 individuals still alive. This small porpoise lives in the northern Gulf of California. They are often caught and drowned in gillnets of illegal fishing operations, which has caused a drastic decline in their numbers in recent years.

The Mexican government has spent over $100 million on vaquita conservation, including efforts to end illegal fishing and implementing a captive breeding program.

This article was first published by Care2.com on 18 May 2017.


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