According to the 2016 IUCN Red List, 448 of the world’s 10,965 extant bird species are “Endangered (EN)”.
An “Endangered” species faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
The photographs of the “Endangered” species below have been archived by our Species Champions.
Spheniscus demersus breeds at 25 islands and four mainland sites in Namibia and South Africa (Kemper et al. 2007). It has been recorded as far north as Gabon and Mozambique (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding on Neglectus Island, Namibia, was confirmed in 2001, following the absence of confirmed breeding since 1952 at least, and an increase in numbers since 1995 (Roux et al. 2003).
Phalacrocorax neglectus breeds at 45 localities between Hollam's Bird Island, Namibia, and Quoin Rock, South Africa. About 80-90% of the breeding population is located on Mercury (1,840 pairs) and Ichaboe Islands, Namibia (Kemper et al. 2007, Ludynia et al. 2010). The non-breeding range extends from just south of Hoanibmond south to Die Walle. Several island populations in the west and north Cape Province have declined in recent years and seven former breeding localities have been vacated (Harrison et al. 1997). The total number of breeding pairs fell from 7,600 in 1978-1980 to 5,750 by 1990 and to 2,800 by 2006 (Kemper et al. 2007).
The Basra Reed Warbler is listed as Endangered because it has a small population which is estimated to be undergoing very rapid and continuing declines owing to extensive, and recently accelerating, drainage of its breeding habitat. All of the images in this gallery were taken in Kuwait between May and September. In 2009 it was confirmed to breed in Kuwait.
Copsychus cebuensis is endemic to the island of Cebu in the Philippines. It has always been considered rare, but intensive fieldwork in 2004 has revealed it to be significantly more widespread than was previously known. There are post-1990 records from at least 28 sites, including six records within highly urbanised areas such as Cebu City (L. M. Paguntalan in litt. 2012), although very small numbers were recorded at most of these, with observations usually totalling one to five individuals at each. However, in 2004, work at Nug-as Forest, the largest remaining tract of mature secondary forest (700ha), discovered a much larger population, with 85 individuals sighted across 7 km of transects. Extrapolations based on these sightings suggest that up to 2,500 individuals could be present at Nug-as (Jakosalem et al. 2005).
One of the largest owls in the world, Blakiston's Fish Owl is also one of the most restricted in range. It is endangered due to habitat loss and particularly the loss of suitably sized trees for breeding. Also, the continued construction of dams across its range deprives it of fish, as this species prefers shallow, fast flowing streams where native trout are easy to catch.
Psittacula eques survives in south-west Mauritius, having become extinct historically on Réunion (to France). This species has seen a steady and prolonged increase in the wild population as a result of intensive recovery management. However, its overall numbers are still small, and the population is restricted to a small range within which habitat continues to decline. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.
Egyptian Vulture populations have declined in most parts of its range. In Europe and most of the Middle East, populations in 2001 were half of those from 1980. In India, the decline has been rapid with a 35% decrease each year since 1999. In 1967–70, the area around Delhi was estimated to have 12,000–15,000 of these vultures, with an average density of about 5 pairs per 10 km2. The exact cause of the decline is not known, but has been linked with the use of the NSAID Diclofenac, which has been known to cause death in Gyps vultures. In Italy, the number of breeding pairs declined from 30 in 1970 to 9 in the 1990s. Nearly all breeding failures were due to human activities. In Spain, which holds about 50% of the European population suggested causes of decline include poisoning by accumulation of lead, pesticides (especially due to large-scale use in the control of Schistocerca gregaria locust swarms), and electrocution. Windfarms may also pose a threat. Poorly designed power transmission lines in east Africa electrocute many wintering vultures. Furthermore, studies in Spain suggest that the absorption of veterinary antibiotics suppresses the vultures' innate immunity, making them more prone to infection. A shortage of carrion resulting from new rules for disposal of dead animals following the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis in parts of Europe during 2000 may have also had an effect on some populations
This species has been uplisted to Endangered as new information suggests it is undergoing a very rapid population decline which is suspected to have been primarily driven by habitat loss and deterioration in the Yellow Sea region. Further proposed reclamation projects are predicted to cause additional declines in the future
Long-term monitoring indicates that the Galapagos Penguin is undergoing severe fluctuations, primarily as a result of marine perturbations that may be becoming more extreme. These perturbations have caused an overall very rapid population reduction over the last three generations (34 years). In addition, it has a small population, and is restricted to a very small range, with nearly all birds breeding at just one location. These factors qualify it as Endangered.
Thalassarche carteri breeds on Amsterdam, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, and St Paul Islands (French Southern Territories) and on Prince Edward Island (South Africa). This species is listed as Endangered on the basis of an estimated very rapid ongoing decline over three generations (71 years), based on data from the population stronghold on Amsterdam Island. This decline is the result of adult mortality and poor recruitment owing to interactions with fisheries and disease.
The Japanese Night Heron is extremely secretive and effectively breeds only in southern Japan. It winters south to the Philippines, where it is easily confused with Malayan Night Heron, which looks very similar, has the same habitat and characteristics. There are only 600 - 1700 birds remaining, and the population is continuing to decline due to habitat loss.
This species is classified as Endangered because it has an extremely small population. The population has been stable since the early 1990s but then increased following an island translocation, and if it remains stable or increasing with over 250 mature individuals it may warrant downlisting to Vulnerable in the future.
Falco punctatus is restricted to Mauritius and has undergone a spectacular recovery from just four wild birds (including one breeding pair in 1974. This species has been uplisted from Vulnerable because its formerly increasing population has declined again, with disappearance from part of its range. It is now listed as Endangered on the basis that it has a very small and declining population, which occupies a very small range in which habitat quality is in decline owing to the spread of introduced plant species.
The population of this species has increased as a result of intensive conservation action, and exceeded 50 mature individuals in 1993, and 300 in 2000. However, it has a very small range concentrated in just a few locations, and remains threatened by a continuing decline in the quality of suitable habitat. For these reasons, the species is still listed as Endangered, however it may become eligible for downlisting in the future. Numbers fluctuate owing to predation and disease and it seems doubtful that present populations could be maintained without the current intense management programme.
Crax blumenbachii was formerly widespread in east Brazil, from Bahia south through Espírito Santo and east Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro. Wild populations are currently known from eight reserves, with strongholds of considerably more than 60 birds in Sooretama Biological Reserve. It is largely terrestrial in tall, lowland humid forest. The species has suffered chronic habitat loss and hunting pressure.
The Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. It is endemic to Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil. It is threatened by habitat loss and capture for the wild parrot trade. Less than 10% of original forest cover remains in Bahia and Espírito Santo, and only 2% in Alagoas, primarily because of conversion to plantations and pastureland.
The Sharpe's Longclaw is found in the highlands of west and central Kenya. It has a restricted distribution, occurring on the northern slopes of Mount Kenya, the southern slopes of the Aberdares, on the Gishu, Mau and Kinangop Plateaus around the Rift Valley, and the Kenyan slopes of Mount Elgon (possibly the Ugandan slopes as well) This bird is endangered, with an estimated population of less than 20,000. Its grassland habitat is being replaced by cultivation and woodlots.
This distinctive shorebird is facing quite a dire future due to its small population, restricted range and threats to both its breeding and feeding grounds. This species needs coastal wetlands both for breeding and for feeding, and this type of habitat is being destroyed quickly throughout its range. Its plight is similar to the one faced by the Spoon-billed Sandpiper.
Pycnonotus zeylanicus is known from Tenasserim, Myanmar, south through Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia and Singapore to Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia, Brunei and Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia). This species is declining rapidly across its range as a result of high levels of trapping for the cage-bird trade, compounded by habitat loss within its rather specific habitat type. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.
The White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) is a small stiff-tailed duck. This duck breeds in Spain and North Africa, with a larger population in western and central Asia. Their breeding habitat is large tracts of open water with dense stands of aquatic plants to provide cover and nesting sites.
The White-winged Wood Duck, Cairina scutulata is a species of duck, usually placed in the genus Cairina and allied with the dabbling ducks. Historically, the White-winged Wood Duck was widely distributed from north-east India and Bangladesh, through South East Asia to Java and Sumatra. However, in 2002 it had a population of only 800, with about 200 in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia, 150 on Sumatra, notably in Way Kambas National Park and 450 in India, Bangladesh and Burma.
The beautiful Yellow-breasted Bunting has a wide range across northern Europe and Asia, but the entire population winters in a relatively small region of northern India, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, southern China and Indo-china. In this region it is subject to hunting and trapping, hence its vulnerable status.
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